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Describing your characters through their actions

року

РАННЄ ДИТИНСТВО

Соціальна ситуація розвитку:

u Дитина і дорослий автономні

u З'являється спільна діяльність дитини і дорослого

протиріччя віку:

Передумови переходу на якісно новий щабель розвитку - перехід автономної мови на мову «для інших»

Основні психічні новоутворення:

o Формування та розвиток мови, яка зрозуміла іншим і використовується як засіб спілкування

o Розвиток самостійної ходьби

o Виникнення наочно - дієвого мислення

o Виникнення свідомості, що виступає для інших у вигляді власного Я

3 лінії розвитку в період раннього дитинства:

1. Виникнення прямоходіння

2. Предметна діяльність

3. Розвиток мови

Криза 3 років

Криза протікає по осі перебудови соціальних взаємовідносин особистості дитини та оточуючих людей.

Симптоми кризи 3 років:

1. негативізм

2. Упертість основні симптоми

3. Непоступливість

4. Свавілля і норовливість

5. Протест другорядні

6. Знецінення вимог дорослого симтомов

7. Деспотизм і ревнощі

Так зване Волосожара симптомів кризи виявляє: нові риси завжди пов'язані з тим, що дитина починає мотивувати свої вчинки не змістом самої ситуації, а відносинами з іншими людьми.

Криза 7 років

Особливості кризи 7 років:

1) Переживання набувають сенсу (дратівної дитина розуміє, що він сердитий), завдяки цьому у дитини виникають такі нові ставлення до себе, які були неможливі до узагальнення переживань.

2) До кризи семи років вперше виникає узагальнення переживань, або афективний узагальнення, логіка почуттів

Симптоми кризи 7 років:

o Втрата безпосередності між бажанням і дією

o манернічаньем

o Симптом «гіркої цукерки»

Ця криза вимагає переходу до нової соціальної ситуації розвитку, до нових відносин з дорослим, прагнення виконувати суспільно - корисну діяльність.

Дозвіл кризи: дитина переходить в школу, тим самим задовольняє потребу у виконанні суспільно - корисної діяльності.

Jasmine was a nervous young woman who tended to fidget when she was under pressure. Even her clothes seemed to be on edge: they shifted and slid and drooped and were never still. Tony, on the other hand, was too sure of himself. But the more adamant he was about anything, the more Jasmine fluttered. The more she fluttered, the more irritated Tony got, until he was barking orders and she was near tears.

That certainly tells the reader what they need to know about Jasmine and Tony. It is an efficient block of text, but it is not satisfying to read. If people want to read an encyclopedia, they'll read one, but no one should have to wade through sluggish fiction. Writing is an art as well as a craft.

Let's look at the passage again. Normally, we would reveal Jasmine and Tony through their words, and weave enough gestures around the dialogue to show the reader the spoken and unspoken stresses within the scene:

"Why - why Tony, I did not think you'd really, you know, want me to go ..." Jasmine's voice trailed off as she fingered the fringe of her shawl.

"Did not I say so?" Tony glared at her. "Did not I say so on Monday? We've got to go."

"But I-I just can not! You know how the Johnsons make me feel, staring at me, always--"

"For God's sake, they are not staring at you!" Tony jerked his head towards the bedroom. "Get some proper clothes on. Now!"

"But, Tony ... please, Tony, why can not we ...?" She looked beseechingly at him, her pale eyes swimming with tears.

It's easy to reveal character when you can combine action with dialogue. It's less easy to do it through description alone if, at the same time, we are trying to write well. Why would we need to reveal character without dialogue? In an adventure story or thriller, where action is the core of the plot, as a change of pace from dialogue, or simply as an exercise. Let's do that exercise now. Jasmine and Tony are at odds over a party invitation. They have had the conversation we've just overheard. Now they fall silent.

Tony stood in the middle of the room, watching Jasmine shift around its edges, tweaking a cushion, fiddling with the curtains. Jasmine straightened a picture, seeing from the corner of her eye his fists shoved hard into his pockets. He looked embedded in the centre of the room. She closed and piled up the magazines, picked a hair from the back of the chair. He suddenly raised one meaty hand; she squeaked, but he was pointing to the bedroom door. In a flurry of shawl and scarves, she fled.

Even without the preceding dialogue, you would have understood the dynamics between the two characters. Every action has to be the result of inner emotion or purpose. Every action has to propel the plot of the story, both in giving us further information about the characters, building tension (will Tony's impatience spill over into violence?) And speeding along the events. If ever "show, do not tell" was central to writing, it is in passages where actions must speak for all.

Eddy, Jack and Herman slipped down into the ditch, Mike following with the rope. The search light's beam swept over them and they ducked. Jack wiped his mouth with a trembling hand, but was on Eddy's heels as Eddy crawled towards the road. Mike slithered in the mud, the rope tangling under him. Herman extended an impatient hand; Mike doggedly shook his head and started to re-coil the rope by touch. Eddy glanced back, checking them, his eyes lingering on Mike's face. Herman heard the guards first. He tapped Jack's boot. Jack jerked as if shot, then froze. Eddy held up a hand, his head cocked, listening, his Uzi held against his body. The four men waited as motorcycles roared along the road, Jack shuddering as they passed. Eddy waved forward urgently and set a fast pace to the shelter of the culvert. This time Herman reached back and hauled both Mike and rope along in one massive grip.

What do we know about these men? Which one is liable to break under pressure, which one is the natural leader, which one is trying to be tough beyond his strength, which one has the 'older brother' mentality? If the reader can not tell, the writer has failed. But if the reader learned something about the characters while being swept along by the story, the writer has succeeded.

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