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Basic data processing operations


The necessary data are processed by a computer to become useful information. In fact this is the definition of data processing. Data are a collection of facts - unorganized but able to be organized into useful information. Processing is a series of actions or operations that convert inputs into outputs. When we speak of data processing, the input is data, and the output is useful information. So, we can define data processing as a series of actions or operations that converts data into useful information.

We use the term data processing system to include the resources that are used to accomplish the processing of data. There are four types of resources: people, materials, facilities, and equipment. People provide input to computers, operate them, and use their output. Materials, such as boxes of paper and printer ribbons, are consumed in great quantity. Facilities are required to house the computer equipment, people and materials.

The need for converting facts into useful information is not a phenomenon of modern life. Throughout history, and even prehistory, people have found it necessary to sort data into forms that were easier to understand. For example, the ancient Egyptians recorded the ebb and flow of the Nile River and used this information to predict yearly crop yields. Today computers convert data about land and water into recommendations to farmers on crop planting. Mechanical aids to computation were developed and improved upon in Europe, Asia, and America throughout the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. Modern computers are marvels of an electronics technology that continues to produce smaller, cheaper, and more powerful components.

Five basic operations are characteristic of all data processing systems: inputting, storing, processing, outputting, and controlling. They are defined as follows.

Inputting is the process of entering data, which are collected facts, into a data processing system. Storing is saving data or information so that they are available for initial or for additional processing. Processing represents performing arithmetic or logical operations on data in order to convert them into useful in-formation. Outputting is the process of producing useful information, such as a printed report or visual display.

Controlling is directing the manner and sequence in which all of the above operations are performed.

Data storage hierarchy

It is known that data, once entered, are organized and stored in successively more comprehensive groupings. Generally, these groupings are called a data storage hierarchy. The genera) groupings of any data storage hierarchy are as follows:

1) Characters, which are ail written language symbols: letters, numbers, and special symbols. 2) Data elements, which are meaningful collections of related characters. Data elements are also called data items or fields. 3) Records, which are collections of related data elements. 4) Files, which are collections of related records. A set of related files is called a data base or a data bank.

** 2. Comprehension questions.

1. What is processing? 2. What is data processing? 3. What does the term of data processing system mean? 4. What basic operations does a data processing system include? 5. What is inputting / storing / outputting information? 6. What do you understand by resources? 7. How did ancient Egyptians convert facts into useful information? 8. When were mechanical aids for computation developed? 9. What does data storage hierarchy mean? 10. What are the general groupings of any data storage hierarchy?

** 3. Find in the text the English equivalents to the following word - combinations:

Системи обробки інформації; визначення (терміна) обробки даних; сукупність фактів; послідовність дій; перетворення вхідних даних в корисну інформацію; включати ресурси; завершити обробку даних; забезпечувати введення інформації в комп'ютер; стрічки принтера; витрачати в великій кількості; розміщувати комп'ютерне обладнання; потребувати (вимагати) в пристроях; явище сучасного життя; протягом доісторичного періоду; перетворювати інформацію в вираження; реєструвати відливи і припливи; прогнозувати урожай зернових культур; механічні засоби обчислення; ввід данних; збереження даних; первісна обробка даних; додаткова обробка; видача корисної інформації; надруковане повідомлення; зорове відображення; послідовність запам'ятовування інформації; записані символи мови; елементи інформації; база даних; набір взаємозв'язаних файлів.

** 4.Translate the words

Data resource; storage resource; network resource; security resource; system resource.

Communication facilities; data base facilities; display facilities; management facilities.

Distance control; device control; keyboard control; position control; program control.

Computer storage; laser storage; file storage; disk storage; data storage hierarchy.

Character sequence; instruction sequence; message sequence; pulse sequence.

Batch file; catalog file; data file; help file; input file; output file; menu file; user file.

Command input; data input; disk input; file input; keyboard input; program input.

* 5.Match word-combinations on the left. Translate into Ukrainian

1. Computer a) the set of instructions that direct the operations of computers;

2. Computer literacy b) a part of a computer, entering data into the device;

3.A program c) facts unorganized but able to be organized;

4.Data d) the output of a data processing system;

5.Data processing e) possessing sufficient knowledge of how computers work and what they

can do to use them as problem-solving tools;

6. Data processing f) a series of operations that results in the conversion of data system

into useful information;

7.Input g) an electronic device performing calculations on numerical data;

8.Output h) an electronic device accenting the data processing results

from the computer and displaying them;

9.Useful information i) a set of related files;

10.Data bank j) the resources required to accomplish the processing of data.

These resources are personnel, material, facilities and equipment.

НАВЧАЛЬНО-МЕТОДИЧНИЙ ЦЕНТР цивільного захисту «-- попередня | наступна --» Тема 2. Лекція 1. Становлення давньоруського суспільства і держави (IX-XII ст.).
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