Малюнок - drawing.
Пропорція - proportion. The correct, most useful, or most attractive relationship between things.
Перспектива - perspective. A method of showing distance in a picture by making far away objects smaller.
Мазок - stroke, touch, dash, dab.
Ракурс - foreshortening. To represent some lines of an object as shorter than they actually are in order to give the illusion of proper relative size in accordance with the principles of perspective.
Світлотінь - chiaroscuro [K?a: r?sk'ju?rou], light and shade. The way that light and dark areas create a pattern in drawings and paintings.
Сфумато - sfumato (Італ. - «Серпанок»). The method invented by Leonardo da Vinci. The painting characterized by the lack of any rigidity of contour and the most subtle transitions between tones and shapes.
4. Художні об'єднання і школи.
Art Societies and Schools.
Барбізонська школа - Barbizon School: a group of French romantic landscape painters (Millet, Corot, Rousseau) who settled in Barbizon, a village in N. France in the mid - 19th cent.
Бубновий валет - the Jack of Diamonds: A society of Moscow artists (1910-1916). Members of the society (Konchalovsky, Kuprin, Lentulov, Mashkov, Falk) combined Cezanne, fauvism, cubism and Russian lubok in their works.
Венеціанська школа - Venetian School: One of the main art school with Venice as its centre in the period of Renaissance (15th - 16th cent.) and in 18th cent .; characterized by poetic perception of the world, man, and nature with special attention to the colour-scheme of paintings.
Блакитна троянда - the Blue Rose: a society of Moscow artists (Kuznetsov, Matvejev, Saryan, Sudejkin, etc.) in 1907. Characteristic features are flat and stylized form, decorative and symbolic tendencies.
Кукринікси - Kukrynicksy: a group of Russian painters and graphics (Kupriyanov, Krylov, Nick. Sokolov) famous for their satirical posters, political caricatures which they created together.
Світ мистецтва - the World of Art: a society of Petersburg artists (1898-1924) to which belonged Diaghilev, Bakst, Lancere, Somov, Ostroumova- Lebedeva, etc. Proclaimed ideas of art for art's sake, symbolism, and poetics.
Пінгвін хвіст - the Donkey's Tail: a society of young Russian artists (Larionov, Goncharova, Malevich, Taflin, etc.) in 1912. Denied traditions of classical art; combined the elements of icon painting, Russian lubok and primitivism in their works; claimed for the freedom of experiments.
Передвижники - Peredvizhniki: the association of movable exhibitions established in 1870 in Petersburg led by Kramskoy: united young progressive artists of realistic trend.
Прерафаеліти - Pre-Raphaelites[Pri: r?fi: ?'laits]: a society of artists led by Rossetti, Hunt, and Millais, formed in England in 1848 to encourage painting with the fidelity to nature that they considered characteristic of Italian art before Raphael.
Синій Вершник - the Blue Rider (Нім. Blauer Reiter): a society of expressionist artists in Munich (1911-1914), to which belonged Mark, Kandinsky, Klee, etc.