Like words-forms variants of words are identified in the process of communication as making up one and the same word. Thus, within the language system the word exists as a system and unity of all its forms and variants.
When used in actual speech the word undergoes certain modification and functions in one of its forms. The system showing a word in all its word-forms is called a paradigm. The lexical meaning of a word is the same throughout the paradigm. The grammatical meaning varies from one form to another. Therefore, when we speak of any word used in actual speech we use the term "word" conventionally because what is manifested in utterances is not a word as a whole but one of its forms which is identified as belonging to the definite paradigm. Words as a whole are to be found in the dictionary (showing the paradigm n - noun, v - verb, etc).
Îñíîâè Àíãë³éñüêî¿ ëåêñèêîëîã³¿
Ìàðèíà Ñåðàôèì³âíà Ðåòóíñêàÿ
American School Vocabulary
British English American English
British and American Correspondences
Public school - Äåðæàâíà øêîëà, private / independent school - Ïðèâàòíà / íåçàëåæíà øêîëà, parochial school - Öåðêîâíî-øêîëà, pre-school education - Äîøê³ëüíå íàâ÷àííÿ, nursery school (Daycare center) - ÿñëà, kindergarten - äèòÿ÷èé ñàäîê, elementary school - ïî÷àòêîâà øêîëà, secondary school - Ñåðåäíÿ øêîëà, high school - Øêîëà III ñòóïåíÿ (ñòàðø³ êëàñè ñåðåäíüî¿ øêîëè) ñêëàäàºòüñÿ ç: Junior high and Senior high schools, curriculum - Íàâ÷àëüíèé ïëàí, ïðîãðàìà, Subjects (courses) - Ïðåäìåòè.
Ðåäàêòîðè: Ë. Ï. Øàõðîâà
Í. Ï. Ìîðîçîâà
Ë³öåíç³ÿ ÏÄ ¹ 18-0062 â³ä 20.12.2000
Ï³äïèñàíî äî äðóêó Ôîðìàò 60 õ 90 1/16.
Ïå÷. ë. òèðàæ Çàìîâëåííÿ
Äðóêàðíÿ ÍÃËÓ ³ì. Í. À. Äîáðîëþáîâà
603155, Í. Íîâãîðîä, âóë. Ì³í³íà, 31à
* Laurence Urdang, Suffixes and Other Word-Final Elements of English. - Detroit, Michigan, 1982
* Bahuvrihi, "much-riced" - exocentric compounds where a person, animal or thing are metonymically named
after some striking feature they possess (e.g. appearance) where there this feature is expressed by the sum of
the meanings of Ics.
* H. Sweet was the first to use the term in his "New English Grammar" (1891)
* There is also a purely syntactic approach which is called functional (A. Kennedy, R. Woddell, C. Pollock)
* The blind, the dead, the wounded, the accused are partially substantivized, we see no morphological changes,
no new paradigms.
* Shortened adjectives are very few and complicated by suffixation (comfy - comfortable, mizzy - miserable). Shortened verbs are rare.
* Irradiation and concatenation demonstrate different ways of meaning development
* It is the oldest original meaning of the word.
There are two approaches to the paradigm: As a system of forms of one word revealing the differences and the relationships between them.
e. g .: to see - saw - seen - seeing (Different forms have different relations)
In abstraction from concrete words the paradigm is treated as a pattern on which every word of one part of speech models its forms, thus serving to distinguish one part of speech from another.
-s -'s -s '-ed -ing
nouns, of-phrases verbs
Besides the grammatical forms of words there are lexical varieties, which are called "variants"Of words or lexico-semantic variants. Words seldom possess only one meaning, when used in speech each word reveals only that meaning which is required.
e. g. to learn at school to make a dress
to learn about smth. /smbd. to make smbd. do smth.
There are also phonetic and morphological variants.
e. g .: often can be pronounced in two ways, though the sound-form is slightly changed the meaning remains unchangeable
dream - dreamt - dreamt - These are morphological variants, the meaning is the same but the model is different.
Lexicology uses a variety of methods of investigation:
a) Contrastive analysis is applied to reveal the features of sameness and difference in the lexical meaning and the semantic structure of correlated words in different languages. It is commonly assumed by non-linguists that all languages have vocabulary systems in which the words themselves differ in sound-form, but refer to reality in the same way. From this assumption it follows that for every word in the mother tongue there is an exact equivalent in the foreign language. Differences in the lexical meaning of correlated words account for the differences of their collocability in different languages.
b) Statistical analysis is recognized as the one of the major methods of linguistics. Statistical inquiries have considerable importance because of their relevance to certain problems of communication engineering and information theory. Statistical approach proved essential in the selection of vocabulary items of a foreign language for teaching purposes.
c) Immediate constituents analysis was originally elaborated as an attempt to determine the ways in which lexical units are relevantly related to one another. It was discovered that combinations of units are usually structured into hierarchial sets of binary constructions. The fundamental aim of immediate constituents analysis is to segment a set of lexical units into two maximally independent sequences and these maximally independent sequences are called immediate constituents. The further segmentation of immediate constituents results in ultimate constituents, which means that further segmentation is impossible, for no meaning can be found.
d) Distributional analysis in its various forms is commonly used in lexicology. By the term "distribution" we understand the occurrence of a lexical unit relative to other lexical units of the same levels: words to words, morpheme to morphemes. In other words, by this term we understand the position which lexical unit occupies or may occupy in the text or in the flow of speech.
e) Transformational analysis is defined as repatterning (representing, reorganization) of various distributional structures in order to discover difference or sameness of meaning of practically identical distributional patterns. As distributional patterns are in a number of cases polysemantic transformational procedures are of help not only in the analysis of semantic sameness / difference of the lexical units but also in the analysis of the factors that account for their polysemy. Word-groups of identical distributional structure when repatterned show that the semantic relations between words and the meaning may be different.
f) Componential analysis proceeds from the assumption that the smallest units of meaning are sememes or semes.
g) The method of semantic differential studies the connotational aspect of a word, as a word has not only one meaning and even one word usually implies some additional information, which differentiates one word from another.
CLASSIFICATION OF THE ENGLISH VOCABULARY (5)
(The ways of replenishment of the English vocabulary: neologisms and archaisms, patterned and non-patterned ways, the role of borrowing, most productive patterns.)
Just as there is formal and informal dress, so there is formal and informal speech. One is not supposed to turn up at a ministerial reception or at a scientific symposium wearing a pair of brightly coloured pajamas. Consequently, the social context, in which the communication is taking place, determines both the mode of dress and the mode of speech. When placed in different situations, people instinctively choose different kinds of words and structures to express their thoughts. The suitability or unsuitability of a word for each particular situation depends on its stylistic characteristics or, in other words, on the functional style it represents.
The term "functional style" is generally accepted in modern linguistics. Pr. I.V. Arnold defines it as "a system of expressive means peculiar to a specific sphere of communication". By the sphere of communication we mean the circumstances attending the process of speech in each particular case: professional communication, a lecture, an informal talk, a formal letter, an intimate letter, a speech in court. All these circumstances or situations can be roughly classified into 2 types: formal and informal. According to it functional styles are classified into 2 groups: informal style and formal style.
In order to get a more or less clear idea of the word stock of any language, it must be presented as a system, the elements of which are interconnected, interrelated and yet independent. Vocabulary is the totality of words in a language. The whole of the word stock of the English language is generally divided into 3 main layers: the literary, the neutral and the colloquial. The literary and colloquial layers contain a number of subgroups each of which has a property it shares with all other subgroups of the layer. The common property, which unites the different groups of words within the layer, is called its aspect. The aspect of the literary layer is its markedly bookish character. It is this that makes the layer more or less stable. The aspect of the colloquial layer of words is its lively spoken character, which makes it unstable and fleeting. The aspect of the neutral layer is its universal character. It can be employed in all styles of lge and in all spheres of human activity, that makes it the most stable layer of all.
The literary layer / vocabulary consists of groups, which are accepted as legitimate members of the English vocabulary. They are:
1. common literary - they are chiefly used in writing and polished speech. Literary units stand in opposition to colloquial units and are especially apparent when pairs of synonyms are formed:
e.g .: kid- child- infant (coll.- neutr.- lit.)
daddy- father- parent
get along- start- commence
2. terms and learned words:
· Terms are words or word groups which are specifically employed by a particular branch of science, trade or the arts to convey a notion peculiar to this particular activity:
e.g .: bilingual, interdental, labialisation, palatalization, glottal stop
· Learned words are mainly associated with the printed page. It is in this stratum that poetry and fiction find their main resources. It includes several heterogeneous subdivisions:
a) words used in scientific prose - usually with dry, matter-of-fact flavour:
e.g .: comprise, comply, experimental, heterogeneous, homogeneous
b) "officialese" - words of official, bureaucratic lge:
e.g .: assist = help, endeavour = try, proceed = go, approxim = about
c) "refined" words - polysyllabic words usually drawn from the Romance languages, they seem to retain an aloofness associated with the lofty contexts. Their very sound seems to create complex and solemn associations:
e.g .: solitude, sentiment, fascination, fastidiousness, delusion, felicity, elusive.
d) modes of poetic diction - words of a lofty, high flown, sometimes archaic colouring:
e.g .: Alas! They had been friends in youth;
But whispering tongues can poison truth:
And constancy lives in realms above;
And life is thorny, and youth is vain;
And to be wroth with one we love,
Doth work like madness in the brain.
3. archaic and obsolete words stand close to learned:
· Archaisms are words which are partially or fully out of circulation rejoiced by the living language. Their last refuge is in historical novels or in poetry:
e.g .: thou, thy, aye, nay
morn (= morning), eve (= evening), moon (= month)
· Obsolete words are words which have completely gone out of the use, but the borderline between them is rather vague and uncertain and sometimes it's difficult to decide to what group the words belong.
4. barbarisms (foreign words) are words borrowed from another languages without any changes of sound and spelling:
e.g .: tete - a - tete, deja - vu, kaput, karaoke
5. nonce-words (neologisms) are words created for special communicative situations only, and are not used beyond these occasions and are characterized by freshness, originality, lucidity:
e.g .: I'm not just talented. I'm genuised.
The colloquial vocabulary is used in one's immediate circle: family, relatives or friends. One uses these words when at home or when feeling at home. They are characterized as relaxed, free - and easy, familiar and unpretentious. They fall into following groups:
1. common colloquial words (colloquialisms) are used by everybody and their sphere of communication is comparatively wide. These are informal words used both by cultivated and uneducated people:
e.g .: I'm not good enough at math. There's a chap there just down from Cambridge who puts us through it. I can not keep up.
2. slang is the lge of a higher colloquial style considered to be below the level of standard educated speech and consisting of new words or of current words employed in some special sense:
e.g .: mug = face; saucer, blinker = eyes; trap = mouth, dogs = feet, to leg = to walk.
3. jargonisms stand close to slang, but they are used by limited groups of people, united either professionally (= professionalisms) or socially (= jargonisms proper):
e.g .: pipeliner = swabber, bender, cat, old cat
geologist = smaller, pebble pup, rock hound
4. dialectal words are defined as "a variety of a lge, which prevails in a district, with local peculiarities of vocabulary, pronunciation and phrase". England is a small country, but yet it has many dialects, which have their peculiar distinctive features. Dialects are regional forms of English. Dialectal peculiarities are constantly being incorporated into everyday colloquial speech and slang:
e.g .: lass, lassie, baccy (tobacco), summat (smth)
The neutral vocabulary includes words, which are stylistically neutral, and in this respect opposed to formal and informal words. Their stylistic neutrality makes it possible to use them in all kinds of situations, both formal and informal, in verbal and written communication. These words are used every day, everywhere and by everybody, regardless of profession, occupation, education, age group or geographical location. They are words without which no human communication is possible as they denote objects and phenomena of everyday importance. This group of words is the central group of the vocabulary, its historical foundation and living core. They are also characterized by entire lack of other connotations, as their meanings are broad, general and directly convey the concept, without supplying any additional information.
Archaisms are words which are no longer used in everyday speech, which have been ousted by their synonyms. Archaisms remain in the language, but they are used as stylistic devices to express solemnity.
Most of these words are lexical archaisms and they are stylistic synonyms of words which ousted them from the neutral style:
e.g .: steed / horse /, slay / kill /, behold / see /, perchance / perhaps /, woe / sorrow /
Sometimes a lexical archaism begins a new life, getting a new meaning, then the old meaning becomes a semantic archaism:
e.g.: «Fair» in the meaning «beautiful» is a semantic archaism, but in the meaning «blond» it belongs to the neutral style.
Sometimes the root of the word remains and the affix is changed, then the old affix is considered to be a morphemic archaism:
e.g .: beautious - «Ous» was substituted by «ful», bepaint «Be» was dropped, darksome - «Some» was dropped, oft - «en» was added
At the present moment English is developing very swiftly and there is so called «neology blowup». 800 neologisms appear every year in Modern English. It has also become a language-giver recently, especially with the development of computerization.
New words appear in speech of an individual person who wants to express his idea in some original way. This person is called «originater». New lexical units are primarily used by university teachers, newspaper reporters, by those who are connected with mass media.
Neologisms can develop in three main ways:
- A lexical unit existing in the language can change its meaning to denote a new object or phenomenon, in such cases we have semantic neologisms:
e.g .: the word «umbrella» developed the meanings: «àâ³àö³éíå ïðèêðèòòÿ», «ïîë³òè÷íå ïðèêðèòòÿ».
- A new lexical unit can develop in the language to denote an object or phenomenon which already has some lexical unit to denote it, in such cases we have transnomination:
e.g .: the word «slum» was first substituted by the word «ghetto», then by the word-group «inner town».
- A new lexical unit can be introduced to denote a new object or phenomenon. In this case we have «a proper neologism», many of them are cases of new terminology.
There are several semantic groups of neologisms connected with computerization:
a) to denote different types of computers, e.g. PC, super-computer, multi-user, neurocomputer / analogue of a human brain /;
b) to denote parts of computers, e.g. hardware, software, monitor, screen, data, vapourware / experimental samples of computers for exhibition, not for production /;
c) to denote computer languages, e.g. BASIC, Algol FORTRAN etc;
d) to denote notions connected with work on computers, e.g. computerman, computerization, computerize, to troubleshoot, to blitz out / to ruin data in a computer's memory /.
There are also different types of activities performed with the help of computers, many of them are formed with the help of the morpheme «tele»:
e.g .: to telework, to telecommute, telebanking, telemarketing, teleshopping
In the sphere of lingusitics we have such neologisms as: machine translation, interlingual.
In the sphere of biometrics we have computerized machines which can recognize characteristic features of people seeking entrance: finger-print scanner, biometric eye-scanner, voice verification.
With the development of social activities neologisms appeared as well:
e.g .: youthquake - õâèëþâàííÿ ñåðåä ìîëîä³, pussy-footer - ïîë³òèê, ùî éäå íà êîìïðîì³ñè, Euromarket, Eurodollar, Europarliament, Europol
In the modern English society there is a tendency to social stratification, as a result there are neologisms in this sphere as well:
e.g .: belonger - ïðåäñòàâíèê ñåðåäíüîãî êëàñó, ïðèõèëüíèê êîíñåðâàòèâíèõ ïîãëÿä³â.
To this group we can also refer abbreviations of the type «yuppie» / young urban professional people /, such as: muppie, gruppie, rumpie, bluppie etc.
People belonging to the lowest layer of the society are called «survivers», a little bit more prosperous are called «sustainers», and those who try to prosper in life and imitate those, they want to belong to, are called «emulaters». Those who have prospered but are not belongers are called «achievers». All these layers of socety are called VAL / Value and Lifestyles /. The rich belong also to «jet set», i.e. those who can afford to travel by jet planes all over the world enjoying their life. Sometimes they are called «jet plane travellers».
There are a lot of immigrants now in the UK, in connection with which neologisms «partial» and «non-partial» were formed / ìàþòü ïðàâî æèòè â êðà¿í³ ³ éîãî àíòîí³ì /.
The word-group «welfare mother» was formed to denote a non-working single mother living on benefit.
In connection with criminalization of towns in the UK volantary groups of assisting the police were formed where dwellers of the neighbourhood are joined. These groups are called «neighbourhood watch», «home watch». Criminals wear «stocking masks» not to be recognized.
The higher society has neologisms in their speech: dial-a-meal, dial-a-taxi.
In the language of teenagers there are such words as: Drugs! / OK /, sweat / á³ã íà äîâã³ äèñòàíö³¿ /, task / home composition /, brunch.
With the development of professional jargons a lot of words ending in «speak» appeared in English:
e.g .: artspeak, sportspeak, medspeak, education-speak, video-speak, cable-speak
There are different semantic groups of neologisms belonging to everyday life:
a) food: e.g .: starter = hors d'oevres, macrobiotics = raw vegetables, crude rice, longlife milk, clingfilm, microwave stove, consumer electronics, fridge-freezer, hamburgers / beef-, cheese-, fish-, veg- /.
b) clothing: e.g :. catsuit = one-piece clinging suit, slimster, string = miniscule bikini, hipster = trousers or skirt with the belt on hips, completenik = a long sweater for trousers, sweatnik = a long jacket, pants-skirt, bloomers = lady's sports trousers.
c) footwear: e.g .: winklepickers = shoes with long pointed toes, thongs = open sandals, backsters = beech sandals with thick soles.
d) bags: e.g .: bumbag = a small bag worn on the waist, sling bag = a bag with a long belt, maitre = a small bag for cosmetics.
There are also such words as: dangledolly = a dolly-talisman dangling in the car before the windscreen, boot-sale = selling from the boot of the car, touch-tone = a telephone with press-button.
Neologisms can be also classified according to the ways they are formed. They are subdivided into: phonological neologisms, borrowings, semantic neologisms and syntactical neologisms. Syntactical neologisms are divided into morphological / word-building / and phraseological / forming word-groups /.
Phonological neologisms are formed by combining unique combinations of sounds, they are called artificial:
e.g .: rah-rah = a short skirt which is worn by girls during parades,
yeck, yuck which are interjections to express repulsion produced the adjective yucky, yecky. These are strong neologisms
Strong neologisms alsoinclude phonetic borrowings, such as «perestroika» / Russian /, «solidarnosc» / Polish /, Berufsverbot / German /, dolce vita / Italian / etc.
Morphological and syntactical neologisms are usually built on patterns existing in the language, therefore they do not belong to the group of strong neologisms.
Among morphological neologisms there are a lot of compound words of different types:
e.g .: free-fall -ð³çêå ïàä³ííÿ êóðñó àêö³é, call-and-recall - âèêëèê íà äèñïàíñåðèçàö³þ, bioastronomy - search for life on other planets, rat-out - betrayal in danger, zero-zero (double zero) - ban of longer and shorter range weapon, x-rated / about films terribly vulgar and cruel /, Ameringlish / American English /, tycoonography - a biography of a business tycoon.
There are also abbreviations of different types, such as resto, teen / teenager /, dinky / dual income no kids yet /, ARC / AIDS-related condition, infection with AIDS /, HIV / human immuno-deficiency virus /.
Quite a number of neologisms appear on the analogy with lexical units existing in the language,
e.g .: snowmobile / automobile /, danceaholic / alcoholic /, airtel / hotel /, cheeseburger / hamburger /, autocade / cavalcade /.
There are many neologisms formed by means of affixation, such as: decompress, to disimprove, overhoused, educationalist, slimster, folknik etc.
Phraseological neologisms can be subdivided into phraseological units with transferred meanings, e.g. to buy into / to become involved /, fudge and dudge / avoidance of definite decisions /, and set non-idiomatic expressions, e.g. electronic virus, Rubic's cube, retail park, acid rain, boot trade etc.
THE ETYMOLOGY OF THE ENGLISH WORDS
English vocabulary contains an immense number of words of foreign origin. Explanation for this should be sought in the history of the language, which is closely connected with the history of the nation speaking the language. In order to have a better understanding of the problem, it's necessary to go through a brief survey of certain historical facts.
1st cen. B. C.- most of the territory of Europe was occupied by the Roman Empire. Among the inhabitants of the continent were Germanic tribes, primitive cattle - breeders. Their tribal lge contained only Indo - European (IE) and Germanic elements. After a number of wars they came into peaceful contact. Germanic tribes gained knowledge of new and useful things, first among them things to eat.
e.g .: butyrum (butter), caseus (cheese), cerasum (cherry), pisum (pea), pirum (pear), prunus (plum), cuppa (cup), coqina (kitchen), molina (mill).
5th c. A. D. - some of the Germanic tribes migrated across the sea. There they were confronted by the Celts, but gradually they yielded. Through their numerous contacts with the defeated Celts, the conquerors got to know and assimilated a number of Celtic words:
e.g .: bald, down, glen, druid, bard, cradle
Especially numerous among the Celtic borrowings were place names of rivers and hills:
e.g .: the Avon, the Exe, the Esk, the Usk, the Ux (they originated from Celtic words meaning «river» and «water»
Some Latin words entered the Anglo - Saxon lges through Celtic.
e.g .: strata (street), vallum (wall)
7th century was significant for the christianisation of England. Latin was the official lge of the Christian church and consequently the spread of Christianity was accompanied by a new period of Latin borrowings. These new Latin borrowings mostly indicated people, objects and ideas connected with church and religious rituals.
e.g .: presbyter (priest), episcopus (bishop), monachus (monk), nonna (nun), candela (candle)
Churches organised first schools in England and the first teachers were priests and monks. So educational terms were also Latin borrowings:
e.g .: schola (school), magister (magister)
end of the 8th c. - Mid of the 11th c. - England underwent several Scandinavian invasions which left trace in English vocabulary:
e.g .: call, take, cast, die, law, husband, window
Some of the words are easily recognised by the initial «sk» combination:
e.g .: sky, skin, skill, ski, skirt
1066 - the Norman Conquest. This epoch can be called eventful not only in national, social, political and human terms, but also in linguistic terms. England became a bilingual country. French words from the Norman dialect penetrated every aspect of social life:
· Administrative terms - state, government, parliament, council, power
· Legal terms - court, judge, justice, crime, prison
· Military terms - army, war, soldier, officer, battle, enemy
· Educational terms - pupil, lesson, library, science, pen
· Words of everyday life - table, plate, saucer, dinner, supper, river, autumn, uncle
Renaissance - in all countries this period was marked by significant development in art, science and culture and also by the revival of interests to the ancient civilisations of Greece and Rome and their lges. Hence, there occurred a considerable number of Latin borrowings, mainly abstract words:
e.g .: major, minor, filial, moderate, intelligent, permanent
Scientific and artistic terms were also numerous:
e.g .: datum, status, phenomenon, philosophy, method, music, atom, cycle, ethics.
The Renaissance was the period of extensive cultural contacts between European states, therefore, new words entered the English vocabulary, especially from French:
e.g .: regime, routine, police, machine, ballet, matinee, scene, technique
Italian also contributed a number of words:
e.g .: piano, violin, opera, alarm, colonel
There are certain structural features, which enable to identify some words as borrowings and even to determine the source of lge. Thus, the initial «sk» usually indicates Scandinavian origin. Some words can be recognised as Latin or French borrowings by certain suffixes, prefixes and endings.
ETYMOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF ENGLISH VOCABULARY.
The IE and Germanic groups are so old that they can not be dated; the tribal language of the Angles, the Saxons and the Jutes by the time of their migration contained only words of IE and Germanic root = a certain number of the earliest Latin borrowings. By the IE element we mean words of roots common to all languages of the IE group. English words of this group denote elementary notions of human activity:
· Family relations: father, mother, brother, son, daughter;
· Parts of human body: foot, nose, lip, heart;
· Animals: cow, swine, goose;
· Plants: tree, birch, corn;
· Time of day: day, night;
· Heavenly bodies: sun, moon, star;
· Adjectives: red, new, glad, sad;
· Numerals from 1 to 100;
· Pronouns: personal (except "they") - Scand.) And demonstrative;
· Verbs: be, stand, sit eat, know.
The Germanic element represents words of roots common to all Germanic lges. Some of the groups are the same as in the IE element:
· Parts of body: head, hand, arm, finger, bone;
· Animal: bear, fox, calf;
· Plants: oak, fir, grass;
· Natural phenomena: rain, frost;
· Seasons: winter, spring, summer;
· Landscape features: sea, land;
· Dwellings and furniture: house, room, bench;
· Sea vessels: boat, ship;
· Adjectives: green, blue, grey, white, small, thick, thin, high, old, good;
· Verbs: see, hear, speak, tell, say, answer, make, give, drink.
The English proper element includes words, which are specifically English, having no cognates in other lges.
e.g .: bird, boy, girl, lord, lady, woman, daisy, always
The historical circumstances often stimulate the borrowing process. Each time two nations come into close contact, certain borrowings are a natural consequence. The nature of the contact may be different, it may be wars, invasions or conquests, where foreign words are imposed upon the reluctant conquered nation. There are also periods of peace, when the process of borrowing is due to trade and international cultural relations. Sometimes words are borrowed to fill a gap in vocabulary. When the Saxons borrowed Latin words "butter", "plum", "beet", they did it because their own vocabularies lacked words for these notions. For the same reason "potato" and "tomato" were borrowed from Spanish. But there are also a great number of words, which are borrowed for other reasons. There may be a word, which expresses some peculiar notion, so there seems to be no need for borrowing. Yet, the word is borrowed, which means the same notion in some new aspect, supplies a new shade of meaning or a different emotional colouring.
e.g .: cordial (Fr.) - friendly, desire (Fr.) - wish, admire (Fr.) - love.
Thus, this type of borrowing enlarges groups of synonyms and enriches the expressive resources of the vocabulary.
When the words are borrowed, they do not remain the same, but get adjust to their new environment and get adapted to the norms of the recipient language. They undergo certain changes, which gradually erase their foreign features and finally they are assimilated. Sometimes the process of assimilation develops to the point, when the foreign origin of a word is unrecognisable (dinner, cat, teke, cup). Others, though well assimilated, still bear traces of their foreign background (distance, development, skin, sky, poloce, regime).
Borrowings can be classified according to different criteria:
a) according to the aspect which is borrowed,
b) according to the degree of assimilation,
c) according to the language from which the word was borrowed.
According to the borrowed aspect they fall into phonetic borrowings, translation loans, semantic borrowings, morphemic borrowings.
Phonetic borrowings are most characteristic in all languages, they are called loan words proper. Words are borrowed with their spelling, pronunciation and meaning. Then they undergo assimilation, each sound in the borrowed word is substituted by the corresponding sound of the borrowing language. In some cases the spelling is changed. The structure of the word can also be changed. The position of the stress is very often influenced by the phonetic system of the borrowing language. The paradigm of the word, and sometimes the meaning of the borrowed word are also changed.
e.g .: labour, travel, table, chair, people are phonetic borrowings from French; apparatchik, nomenklatura, sputnik are phonetic borrowings from Russian;
bank, soprano, duet are phonetic borrowings from Italian
Translation loans are word-for-word (or morpheme-for-morpheme) translations of some foreign words or expressions. In such cases the notion is borrowed from a foreign language but it is expressed by native lexical units
e.g .: to take the bull by the horns (Lat), fair sex (Fr), living space, masterpiece, homesickness, superman (Germ).
Some translation loans appeared in English from Latin already in the Old English period:
e.g .: Sunday (solis dies).
There are translation loans from the languages of Indians:
e.g .: pipe of peace, pale-faced,
Semantic borrowings are such units when a new meaning of the unit existing in the language is borrowed. It can happen when we have two relative languages which have common words with different meanings:
e.g.: Semantic borrowings between Scandinavian and English: to live for to dwell which in Old English had the meaning to wander
Semantic borrowing can appear when an English word was borrowed into some other language, developed there a new meaning and this new meaning was borrowed back into English:
e.g .: brigade was borrowed into Russian and formed the meaning a working collective. This meaning was borrowed back into English as a Russian borrowing. The same is true of the English word pioneer.
Morphemic borrowings are borrowings of affixes which occur in the language when many words with identical affixes are borrowed from one language into another, so that the morphemic structure of borrowed words becomes familiar to the people speaking the borrowing language:
e.g .: Romanic affixes in the English word-building system, that is why there are a lot of words - hybrids in English where different morphemes have different origin: goddess, beautiful
The degree of assimilation of borrowings depends on the following factors:
a) from what group of languages the word was borrowed, if the word belongs to the same group of languages to which the borrowing language belongs it is assimilated easier,
b) in what way the word is borrowed: orally or in the written form, words borrowed orally are assimilated quicker,
c) how often the borrowing is used in the language, the greater the frequency of its usage, the quicker it is assimilated,
d) how long the word lives in the language, the longer it lives, the more assimilated it is.
Accordingly borrowings are subdivided into: completely assimilated, partly assimilated and non-assimilated (barbarisms).
Completely assimilated borrowings are not felt as foreign words in the language:
e.g .: sport (Fr), start (Eng)
Completely assimilated verbs belong to regular verbs:
e.g .: correct -corrected
Completely assimilated nouns form their plural by means of s-inflexion:
e.g .: gate - gates
In completely assimilated French words the stress has been shifted from the last syllable to the last but one. Semantic assimilation of borrowed words depends on the words existing in the borrowing language, as a rule, a borrowed word does not bring all its meanings into the borrowing language, if it is polysemantic:
e.g .: sputnik (Rus) is used in English only in one of its meanings.
Partly assimilated borrowings are subdivided into the following groups:
a) borrowings non-assimilated semantically, because they denote objects and notions peculiar to the country from the language of which they were borrowed:
e.g .: sari, sombrero, taiga, kvass
b) borrowings non-assimilated grammatically:
e.g .: Latin and Greek nouns retain their plural: bacillus - bacilli, phenomenon - phenomena, datum -data, genius - genii
c) borrowings non-assimilated phonetically include words with the initial sounds [v] and [z]:
e.g .: voice, zero
In native words these voiced consonants are used only in the intervocal position as allophones of sounds [f] and [s] (loss - lose, life - live). Some Scandinavian borrowings have consonants and combinations of consonants which were not palatalized:
e.g .: [Sk] in sky, skate, ski (In native words we have the palatalized sounds denoted by the digraph «sh», e.g. shirt);
Sounds [k] and [g] before front vowels are not palatalized:
e.g.: Girl, get, give, kid, kill, kettle
In native words there is palatalization:
e.g .: German, child
Some French borrowings have retained their stress on the last syllable:
e.g .: police, cartoon
Some French borrowings retain special combinations of sounds:
e.g .: / A: z / in camouflage, bourgeois
Some of them retain the combination of sounds / wa: / in the words: memoir, boulevard.
d) borrowings can be partly assimilated graphically:
e.g .: in Greak borrowings «y» can be spelled in the middle of the word: symbol, synonym,
«Ph» denotes the sound [f]: phoneme, morpheme
«Ch» denotes the sound [k]: chemistry, chaos
«Ps» denotes the sound [s]: psychology
Latin borrowings retain their polisyllabic structure, have double consonants, as a rule, the final consonant of the prefix is assimilated with the initial consonant of the stem:
e.g .: accompany, affirmative
French borrowings which came into English after 1650 retain their spelling:
e.g .: «P», «t», «s» are not pronounced at the end of the word: Buffet, coup, debris
Specifically French combination of letters «eau» / ou / can be found in the borrowings:
e.g .: beau, chateau, troussaeu
Some of digraphs retain their French pronunciation:
e.g .: «Ch» is pronounced as [?]: chic, parachute
«Qu» is [k]: bouquet
«Ou» is [u:]: rouge
Some letters retain their French pronunciation:
e.g .: «I» is pronounced as / i: /: chic, machine
«G» is pronounced as / z /: rouge
Modern German borrowings also have some peculiarities in their spelling: common nouns are spelled with a capital letter:
e.g .: Autobahn, Lebensraum
Some vowels and digraphs retain their German pronunciation:
e.g .: «A» is pronounced as [a:]: Dictat
«U» is [u:]: Kuchen
«Au» is [au]:Hausfrau
«Ei» is [ai]: Reich
Some consonants are also pronounced in the German way:
e.g .: «S» before a vowel is pronounced as [z]: Sitskrieg
«V» is [f]: Volkswagen, «W» is [v]: Wagen, «Ch» is [h]: Kuchen
Non-assimilated borrowings (Barbarisms) are borrowings which are used by Englishmen rather seldom and are non-assimilated:
e.g .: addio (It), tete-a-tete (Fr), dolce vita (It), duende (Sp), an homme a femme (Fr), gonzo (It)
According to the language from which the word was borrowed they are classified in numerous groups.
Among words of Romanic origin borrowed from Latin during the period when the British Isles were a part of the Roman Empire, there are such words as:
e.g .: street, port, wall
Many Latin and Greek words came into English during the Adoption of Christianity in the 6-th century. At this time the Latin alphabet was borrowed which ousted the Runic alphabet. These borrowings are usually called classical borrowings.
e.g .: alter, cross, dean (Lat), church, angel, devil, anthem (Gr)
Latin and Greek borrowings appeared in English during the Middle English period due to the Great Revival of Learning. These are mostly scientific words because Latin was the language of science at the time. These words were not used as frequently as the words of the Old English period, therefore some of them were partly assimilated grammatically:
e.g .: formula - formulae, memorandum, minimum, maximum, veto
Classical borrowings continue to appear in Modern English as well. Mostly they are words formed with the help of Latin and Greek morphemes. There are quite a lot of them in medicine (appendicitis, aspirin), in chemistry (acid, valency, alkali), in technique (engine, antenna, biplane, airdrome), in politics (socialism, militarism), names of sciences (zoology , physics). In philology most of terms are of Greek origin (homonym, archaism, lexicography).
The largest group of borrowings are French borrowings. Most of them came into English during the Norman conquest. French influenced not only the vocabulary of English but also its spelling, because documents were written by French scribes as the local population was mainly illiterate, and the ruling class was French. Runic letters remaining in English after the Latin alphabet was borrowed were substituted by Latin letters and combinations of letters:
e.g .: «V» was introduced for the voiced consonant / v / instead of «f» in the intervocal position / lufian - love /,
the digraph «ch» was introduced to denote the sound / ch / instead of the letter «c» / chest / before front vowels where it had been palatalized,
the digraph «sh» was introduced instead of the combination «sc» to denote the sound / sh / / ship /,
the digraph «th» was introduced instead of the Runic letters «?» and «?» / this, thing /,
the letter «y» was introduced instead of the Runic letter «3» to denote the sound / j / / yet /,
the digraph «qu» substituted the combination «cw» to denote the combination of sounds / kw / / queen /,
the digraph «ou» was introduced to denote the sound / u: / / house /
As it was difficult for French scribes to copy English texts they substituted the letter «u» before «v», «m», «n» and the digraph «th» by the letter «o» to escape the combination of many vertical lines / «sunu» - «son», luvu »-« love »/.
There are the following semantic groups of French borrowings:
a) words relating to government: administer, empire, state, government;
b) words relating to military affairs: army, war, banner, soldier, battle;
c) words relating to jury: advocate, petition, inquest, sentence, barrister;
d) words relating to fashion: luxury, coat, collar, lace, pleat, embroidery;
e) words relating to jewelry: topaz, emerald, ruby, pearl;
f) words relating to food and cooking: lunch, dinner, appetite, to roast, to stew.
Words were borrowed from French into English after 1650, mainly through French literature, but they were not as numerous and many of them are not completely assimilated. There are the following semantic groups of these borrowings:
a) words relating to literature and music: belle-lettres, conservatorie, brochure, nuance, piruette, vaudeville;
b) words relating to military affairs: corps, echelon, fuselage, manouvre;
c) words relating to buildings and furniture: entresol, chateau, bureau;
d) words relating to food and cooking: ragout, cuisine.
Cultural and trade relations between Italy and England brought many Italian words into English.
The earliest Italian borrowing came into English in the 14-th century, it was the word «bank» from the Italian «banko» - «bench». Italian money-lenders and money-changers sat in the streets on benches. When they suffered losses they turned over their benches, it was called «banco rotta» from which the English word «bankrupt» originated. In the 17-th century some geological terms were borrowed:
e.g .: volcano, granite, bronze, lava
At the same time some political terms were borrowed:
e.g .: manifesto, bulletin
But mostly Italian is famous by its influence in music and in all Indo-European languages musical terms were borrowed from Italian:
e.g: alto, baritone, basso, tenor, falsetto, solo, duet, trio, quartet, quintet, opera, operette, libretto, piano, violin
Among the 20-th century Italian borrowings we can mention:
e.g .: gazette, incognitto, autostrada, fiasco, fascist, diletante, grotesque, graffitto
Spanish borrowings came into English mainly through its American variant. There are the following semantic groups of them:
a) trade terms: cargo, embargo;
b) names of dances and musical instruments: tango, rumba, habanera, guitar;
c) names of vegetables and fruit: tomato, potato, tobbaco, cocoa, banana, ananas, apricot.
English belongs to the Germanic group of languages and there are borrowings from Scandinavian, German and Holland languages, though their number is much less than borrowings from Romanic languages.
By the end of the Old English period English underwent a strong influence of Scandinavian due to the Scandinavian conquest of the British Isles. Scandinavians belonged to the same group of peoples as Englishmen and their languages had much in common. As the result of this conquest there are about 700 borrowings from Scandinavian into English.
Scandinavians and Englishmen had the same way of life, their cultural level was the same, they had much in common in their literature therefore there were many words in these languages which were almost identical, e.g.
ON OE Modern E
syster sweoster sister
fiscr fisc fish
felagi felawe fellow
However, there were also many words in the two languages which were different, and some of them were borrowed into English:
e.g .:nouns - bull, cake, egg, kid, knife, skirt, window;
adjectives - flat, ill, happy, low, odd, ugly, wrong;
verbs - call, die, guess, get, give, scream
Even some pronouns and connective words were borrowed which happens very seldom:
e.g .: same, both, till, fro, though; forms with «th»: they, them, their
Scandinavian influenced the development of phrasal verbs which did not exist in Old English, at the same time some prefixed verbs came out of usage:
e.g .: ofniman, beniman
Phrasal verbs are now highly productive in English / take off, give in etc /.
There are some 800 words borrowed from German into English. Some of them have classical roots, e.g. in some geological terms:
e.g .: cobalt, bismuth, zink, quarts, gneiss, wolfram
There were also words denoting objects used in everyday life which were borrowed from German:
e.g .: iceberg, lobby, rucksack, Kindergarten etc.
In the period of the Second World War the following words were borrowed:
e.g .: Volkssturm, Luftwaffe, SS-man, Bundeswehr, gestapo, gas chamber
After the Second World War the following words were borrowed: Berufsverbot, Volkswagen.
Holland and England have constant interrelations for many centuries and more than 2000 Holland borrowings were borrowed into English. Most of them are nautical terms and were mainly borrowed in the 14-th century:
e.g .: freight, skipper, pump, keel, dock, reef, deck, leak
There were constant contacts between England and Russia and they borrowed words from one language into the other. Among early Russian borrowings there are mainly words connected with trade relations:
e.g .: rouble, copeck, pood, sterlet, vodka, sable
and also words relating to nature:
e.g .: taiga, tundra, steppe
There is also a large group of Russian borrowings which came into English through Rushian literature of the 19-th century:
e.g .: Narodnik, moujik, duma, zemstvo, volost, ukase
and also words which were formed in Russian with Latin roots:
e.g .: nihilist, intelligenzia, Decembrist
After the Great October Revolution many new words appeared in Russian connected with the new political system, new culture, and many of them were borrowed into English:
e.g .: collectivization, udarnik, Komsomol
and also translation loans:
e.g .: shock worker, collective farm, five-year plan
One more group of Russian borrowings is connected with perestroika:
e.g .: glasnost, nomenklatura, apparatchik
TYPES OF BORROWINGS
1) international words are words borrowed by several lges and convey a notion, which is significant in the field of communication. Many of them are of Latin and Greek origin. Most names of sciences (philosophy, mathematics, lexicology) and terms of art (theatre, drama, tragedy, comedy) are international. Political terms also occur in the international group of borrowings. 20th c. scientific and technological advances brought a great number of words as well (atomic, antibiotic, radio, television, sputnik). The English lge also contributed a considerable number of international words to other languages, first of all sports terms (football, volleyball, baseball, cricket, rugby, tennis). Fruit and foodstuffs imported from exotic countries became international (coffee, cocoa, chocolate, banana, mango, avocado, grapefruit).
2) etymological doublets - "shirt" and "skirt" etymologically descend from the same root. "Shirt" is a native word, "skirt" is a Scandinavian borrowing. Their phonemic shape is different, yet, there is some resemblance, which reflects their common origin. Their meanings are also different but easily associated: both denote articles of clothing. Such words originating from the same etymological source but different in phonemic shape and in meaning are called etymological doublets. They may enter the vocabulary by different ways. Some of these pairs consist of a native word and a borrowing (shrew, Eng., Native - screw, Scand., Borr.). Others are represented by two borrowed words from different languages, which historically descend from the same root (senior, Lat. - Sir, Fr .; canal, Lat. - Channel, Fr .; captain, Lat. - Chieftain, Fr.). Others were borrowed from the same lge twice but in different periods (corpse [ko: ps], Norman Fr. - corps [ko:], Parisian Fr .; travel, Norman Fr. - travail, Par. Fr .; cavalry, Norm . Fr. - chivalry, Par. Fr .; goal, Norm. Fr. - jail, Par. Fr.). There exist also etymological triplets (groups of three words of common origin) but they are very rare (hospital, Lat. - Hostel, Norm. Fr. - hotel, Par. Fr .; to capture, Lat. - To catch, Norm. Fr. - to chase, Par. Fr.). A doublet may consist of a shortened word and the one derived from (history - story, fantasy - fancy, fanatic - fan, defence - fence, courtesy - curtsey, shadow - shade).
3) translation - loans are borrowings taken from another language more or less in the same phonemic shape, in which they have been functioning in their own language, but undergo the process of translation (masterpiece < Meister -stuck, Germ; wonder child < Wunderkind , Germ .; first dance < prima - ballerina, Ital .; collective farm < kolkhoz, Rus .; 5 - year - plan < ï'ÿòèð³÷êà, Rus.).
4) foreign words are borrowed from another language without any changes of sound and spelling (tet - a - tete, rouge, deje vu, kaput).
5) xenizms are borrowings, which denote objects and realities of the lge of the source country. They have no corresponding words in the English lge (kung fu, camorra, Gestapo, kolkhoz).
INTERRACTION OF ETYMOLOGICAL AND STYLISTIC CHARACTERISTICS OF WORDS
The centre of gravity of borrowed words in the stylistic classification is represented by two groups: learned words and terminology. In these strata the foreign element dominates over the native; on the contrary, the informal strata, especially slang and dialect, abound in native words. If we compare the expressive and stylistic value of the French and the English words in such synonymic pairs as "to begin - to commence, to wish - to desire, happiness - felicity", we can notice that the French word is usually more formal, more refined and has a less strong hold on the emotional side of life. The truth of this observation becomes more obvious in a pair of a native word and its Latin synonym: motherly - maternal, childish - infantile. "Motherly love" seems much warmer than "maternal feelings", which sounds dutiful but cold. One may speak about "childish games" but "infantile diseases", which sounds dry. But some pairs of words can not be regarded as synonyms, though semantically they refer to the same word. If we analyse the pair "sunny - solar", we'll see that if a fine day can be described as "sunny", it certainly can not be characterized as "solar", which is used in highly formal technological senses. The same is true about "handy - manual, toothy - dental, nosy - nasal).
MEANS OF WORD - BUILDING.
If viewed structurally, words appear to be divisible into smaller units, which are called morphemes. Morphemes do not occur as free forms but only as constituents of words. Yet, they possess meanings of their own.
All morphemes are subdivided into 2 large classes:
(Precede the root) (follow the root)
ex .: re - read, ex .: teacher,
Words, which consist of a root and an affix (affixes) are called derived words or derivatives and are produced by the means of word - building known as affixation or derivation. Derived words are extremely numerous in the English vocabulary.
Successfully competing with this structural type are the so - called root words, which have only one morpheme in its structure. This type is widely presented by a great number of words belonging to the original English stock or to earlier borrowings (house, room, book, work, port, street) and in Modern English has been enlarged by the means of word - building called conversion (= Derivation achieved by bringing a stem into a different paradigm: pale - to pale).
The 4th wide - spread word structure is a compound word, consisting of two or more stems. Words of this structural type are produced by the word - building means called composition.
The somewhat odd - looking words like "flu, pram, lab, M.P., V - day, H - bomb" are called shortenings or contractions and are produced by the 5th means of word - building known as shortening or contraction.
The 4 types (root words, derived words, compounds, shortenings) represent the main structural types of Modern English words, and conversion, derivation and composition are the most productive ways of word - building.
There are some borderline cases which present difficulties. Some elements of the English vocabulary occurring as independent nouns (man, berry, land) have been very frequent as second elements of words for a long time. They seem to have acquired valency similar to that of affixes. They are unstressed, and the vowel sound has been reduced. As these elements seem to come somewhere in between the stems and affixes, the term semi-affix has been offered to name them.
Such elements are considerably generalized semantically and approaches in meaning a mere suffix -er.
Words that are made up of elements derived from two or more different languages are called hybrids. English contains thousands of hybrid words, the vast majority of which show various combinations of morphemes coming from Latin, French and Greek and those of native origin.
Thus, readable has an English root and a suffix that is derived from the Latin abilis and borrowed through French. Moreover, it is not an isolated case, but rather an established pattern that could be represented as English stem+ -able: answerable, eatable, likeable, usable. Its variant with the native negative prefix un- is also worthy of note: un- + English stem + -able. The examples for this are: unanswerable, unbearable, unsayable, unforeseeable, unbelievable. An even more frequent pattern is un- + Romantic stem + -able, Which is also a hybrid: unallowable, uncontrollable, unmoveable, unquestionable, unreasonable and many others. A curious example is the word unmistakable, the ultimate constituents of which are: un- (Engl) + mis- (Engl) + -tak- (Scand) + -able (Fr). The very high valency of the suffix -able seems to be accounted for by the presence of the homographic adjective able with the same meaning.
The process of affixation consists in coining a new word by adding an affix or several affixes to a root morpheme. The role of the affix in this procedure is very important. Affixation is divided into suffixation and prefixation.
The main function of suffixes in Modern English is to form one part of speech from another, the secondary function is to change the lexical meaning of the same part of speech. (E.g. «educate» is a verb, «educatee» is a noun, and «music» is a noun, «musicdom» is also a noun).
There are different classifications of suffixes:
1. Part-of-speech classification. Suffixes, which can form different parts of speech are:
a) noun-forming suffixes, such as: -er (criticizer), -dom (officialdom), -ism (ageism),
b) adjective-forming suffixes, such as: -able (breathable), less (symptomless), -ous (prestigious),
c) verb-forming suffixes, such as -ize (computerize), -ify (micrify),
d) adverb-forming suffixes, such as: -ly (singly), -ward (tableward),
e) numeral-forming suffixes, such as: -teen (sixteen), -ty (seventy).
2. Semantic classification. Suffixes changing the lexical meaning of the stem can be subdivided into groups, e.g. noun-forming suffixes can denote:
a) the agent of the action, e.g. -er (experimenter), -ist (taxist), -ent (student),
b) nationality, e.g. -ian (Russian), -ese (Japanese), -ish (English),
c) collectivity, e.g. -dom (moviedom), -ry (peasantry, -ship (readership), -ati (literati),