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Graphical Abbreviations. Acronyms

:
  1. Background
  2. Chapters 11, 12, 13
  3. Clipping
  4. Cm. Roesle, Die Wirkung des 30-jahrigen Krieges auf die Entwick- lung einer landhchen Bevolkerung, Archiv fur Soziale Hygiene und Detno- raphie , 1932, B. 7, H 3, S 213.
  5. Etymological doublets
  6. Etymology
  7. External means of enriching vocabulary (Old English borrowings)
  8. IV. 4
  9. IV. 7
  10. IV. 9

A growing custom to use laconic forms, to call countries, different official organizations by initial abbreviations typical of written speech was established in English since 30s- 40sof the XX-th century. They are very popular on the threshhold of the XXI-st century.

There are two types of orthoepic correlation between written and spoken forms. If the abbreviated written form is read as an ordinary English word it is called an acronym: UNO- United Nations Organization, USA- United States of America, NATO- North Atlantic Treaty Organization, radar- Radio detection and ranging, TESOL- Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages. Coining new words from the initial letters of phrasal terms is explained by the requirement for a strong signal in the minimum time.

If the abbreviated written form retains alphabetical reading it is pronounced as a series of letters: BBC- The British Broadcasting Corporation, GI- Government Issue, DOD- Department of Defense, GOP- Grand Old Party (Republican), FBI- Federal Bureau of Investigation (cf. Russian ), MP- Memeber of Parliament or Military Police.

A special type of graphical abbreviations is used in writing to replace full forms of words and to economize time, space and effort. N.Y.- New York, X-mas- Christmas, B.A.- Bachelor of Arts, U-boat- A submarine, U-language- Upper-class language.

Latin abbreviations typical of written speech may be replaced in reading by their English equivalents: e.g.- Exempli gratia, p.m.- Post meridiem, ib (id)- Ibidem, i.e. - Id est, op.cit. -opus citato, cf.- Conferre.

There are certain graphical abbreviations which are in active use:

Apt. Apartment -

Blvd. Boulevard -

P.O. - Post Office -

Rd. - Road -

Rw. - Railway -

St. -Saint -

St. - Street -

Names of American States:

AL - Alabama, FL - Florida, NB - Nebraska, OK - Oklahoma

Days of the Week:

Mo - Monday, Tues - Tuesday, Fri - Friday

Months:

M. - May, Mar. - March, Oct. - October, J. - July

Special Signs:

@ - At the rate of -

/ - And, or - ,

# - Number -

& - And -

- copyright -

Miscellanea:

c - cents -

D / A - documents attached -

ft - foot - (30, 48 )

Inc. - Incorporated -

LE - Latest estimates -

M & S - marketing & sales -

N / C - no change -

OH - overhead expenses -

do. ditto -

hrs - hours -

enc (l). - Enclosure -

intl. - International -

et, al - et alii (.) -

i / c - in charge of - '

D - cash on delivery -

A / R - all risks - -

Back-Formation or Reversion -- | -- Onomatopoeia
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