Graphical Abbreviations. Acronyms
A growing custom to use laconic forms, to call countries, different official organizations by initial abbreviations typical of written speech was established in English since 30s - 40s of the XX-th century. They are very popular on the threshhold of the XXI-st century.
There are two types of orthoepic correlation between written and spoken forms. If the abbreviated written form is read as an ordinary English word it is called an acronym: UNO - United Nations Organization, USA - United States of America, NATO - North Atlantic Treaty Organization, radar - Radio detection and ranging, TESOL - Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages. Coining new words from the initial letters of phrasal terms is explained by the requirement for a strong signal in the minimum time.
If the abbreviated written form retains alphabetical reading it is pronounced as a series of letters: BBC - The British Broadcasting Corporation, GI - Government Issue, DOD - Department of Defense, GOP - Grand Old Party (Republican), FBI - Federal Bureau of Investigation (cf. Russian ФБР), MP - Memeber of Parliament or Military Police.
A special type of graphical abbreviations is used in writing to replace full forms of words and to economize time, space and effort. N.Y. - New York, X-mas - Christmas, B.A. - Bachelor of Arts, U-boat - A submarine, U-language - Upper-class language.
Latin abbreviations typical of written speech may be replaced in reading by their English equivalents: e.g. - Exempli gratia, p.m. - Post meridiem, ib (id) - Ibidem, i.e. - Id est, op.cit. -opus citato, cf. - Conferre.
There are certain graphical abbreviations which are in active use:
Apt. Apartment - квартира
Blvd. Boulevard - бульвар
P.O. - Post Office - пошта
Rd. - Road - дорога
Rw. - Railway - залізниця
St. -Saint - Святий
St. - Street - вулиця
Names of American States:
AL - Alabama, FL - Florida, NB - Nebraska, OK - Oklahoma
Days of the Week:
Mo - Monday, Tues - Tuesday, Fri - Friday
M. - May, Mar. - March, Oct. - October, J. - July
@ - At the rate of - за ціною
/ - And, or - і, або
# - Number - номер
& - And - і
© - copyright - авторське право
c - cents - центи
D / A - documents attached - документи додані
ft - foot - фут (30, 48 см)
Inc. - Incorporated - має статус корпорації
LE - Latest estimates - останні дані
M & S - marketing & sales - маркетинг та продажу
N / C - no change - без нарахувань
OH - overhead expenses - накладні витрати
do. ditto - те ж саме
hrs - hours - годинник
enc (l). - Enclosure - додаток
intl. - International - міжнародний
et, al - et alii (лат.) - і інші
i / c - in charge of - виконуючий обов'язки
СОD - cash on delivery - оплата післяплатою
A / R - all risks - будь-яка випадковість