Back-Formation or Reversion
Semantic Relationships in Converted Pairs
There are several typical relations between members of converted pairs:
N > V
1. To fulfill the action characteristic of a noun: "to father", "to ape", "to pussycat", "to wolf".
2. To act with the help of a thing described by a noun "" to chain "," to finger ".
3. To provide with a thing described by a noun: "to curtain", "to cuff".
4. To place the object: "to blacklist", "to pocket".
5. To deprive of the object: "to skin", "to dust", "to weed".
V > N
1. A singular action: "to jump - a jump", "to move - a move".
2. The action of object or person: "to drill - a drill", "to dig - a dig".
3. The place of action: "to forge - a forge (êóçíÿ)", "to ride - a ride" (ì³ñöå äëÿ âåðõîâî¿ ¿çäè).
4. The object or result of action: "to find - a find", "to tear - a tear (ä³ðà)", "to peel - a peel (øê³ðêà)".
5. The distance covered: "to sweep - a sweep" (âåëè÷èíà ïîìàõó), "to pace - a pace (âåëè÷èíà êðîêó)".
A word coined by conversion is capable of further derivation: view (to watch TV) > viewable, viewer, viewing.
Conversion may be combined with composition forming nouns out of verb-adverb combinations: a breakdown - to breakdown, to make up - a makeup, to setback - a setback.
Semantically such nouns are connected with verbal phrases.
Among semantic criteria which are used to establish the direction of derivation in conversion we distinguish the frequency criteria. A less frequent word is usually a derived word. "Thus" to author "is derived from" author "," to waterproof "- from" waterproof ". The semantic structure of a derived word (" dog "-" to dog ") is more simple.
Occasional conversion has a certain stylistic value:
"She has out - Barbared Barbara herself ".
"I shall diamond you! "
"Do not now-then me! "
Minor Ways of Word-Building
is a morphological way of word-building by subtracting a real or supposed affix from words through misinterpretation of their structure. The most frequent is the pattern Vstem + Er. The process is viewed diachronically. On the synchronic plane we may not feel any difference between butler and painter. But painter appeared from to paint while the verb to butle - "To act or serve as a butler" is derived by subtraction of -er from a supposedly verbal stem in the noun butler. A very productive type of back-formation in present-day English is derivation of verbs from compounds with -er and -ing as final elements.
E.g. to air-condition (from air-conditioner), to thought-read (from thought-reader), to baby-sit (from baby-sitter), to house-clean (from house-cleaner), to tape-record (from tape-recorder), to beach-comb (from beach-comber). Structural changes in back-formation are preceded by semantic changes (demotivation). The latter influences the morphological structure.
Butler appeared from OFr boutiller "Bottle bearer" - the man-servant in charge of wine. Now it means "the chief servant of a rich household who is in charge of other servants, he receives guests and directs the serving of meals."
Shortening (Clipping or Curtailment)
is the reduction of a word to one of its parts, building new words with the help of subtraction of a part of the original word. It exists in English from the XV-th century and has gained a special productivity. A lot of neologisms are formed in this way: detox (detoxification) - ×àñòèíà ë³êàðí³ àáî êë³í³êè, äå ë³êóþòü àëêîãîë³ê³â ³ íàðêoìàíîâ, lib (liberation), scrip (prescription). A shortened word is different from its prototype in meaning, style and usage. We classify shortenings according to the position of the clipped part:
apocope - the final part of the word is clipped:
gym - gymnasium, photo - photograph, lab - laboratory, prep -preparation, exam - examination (this type is numerous).
apheresis - the initial part of the word is clipped:
cute - acute, story - history, sport - disport, chute - parachute (This type is less numerous).
syncope - the middle part of the word is clipped: maths - mathematics, specs - spectacles, fancy - fantasy, ma'am - madam.
a combination of initial & final clipping: fridge - refrigerator, tec - detective, flu - influenza.
Clipped forms exist in the language alongside with prototypes. Shortening produces words in the same part of speech. the majority of clipped words are nouns *. Sometimes it is very difficult to establish a connection between the two words: chap + chapman, fan - fanatic. It is typical of curtailed words to render only one of the secondary meanings of a polysemantic word:
· to double (Ïîìíîæèòè, çá³ëüøèòè â 2 ðàçè, ç³ãðàòè â îêòàâó, âòåêòè - â³éñüêîâèé òåðì³í);
· to dub - Äóáëþâàòè ô³ëüì.
What are the reasons for the considerable role of shortening in Modern English word-building? Linguistic causes - analogical extension, modification of form on the basis of analogy - English monosyllabism. Extralinguistic causes - rapid tempo of modern life.