Back-Formation or Reversion

  1. Clipping
  4. Specific Features of English Compounds
  5. Structural aspect
  6. Structural types of English words. Word-formation
  7. Task 12
  8. The Main Difference between BE and AE.
  10. в
  11. в

Semantic Relationships in Converted Pairs

There are several typical relations between members of converted pairs:

N > V

1. To fulfill the action characteristic of a noun: "to father", "to ape", "to pussycat", "to wolf".

2. To act with the help of a thing described by a noun "" to chain "," to finger ".

3. To provide with a thing described by a noun: "to curtain", "to cuff".

4. To place the object: "to blacklist", "to pocket".

5. To deprive of the object: "to skin", "to dust", "to weed".

V > N

1. A singular action: "to jump - a jump", "to move - a move".

2. The action of object or person: "to drill - a drill", "to dig - a dig".

3. The place of action: "to forge - a forge ()", "to ride - a ride" ( ).

4. The object or result of action: "to find - a find", "to tear - a tear ()", "to peel - a peel ()".

5. The distance covered: "to sweep - a sweep" ( ), "to pace - a pace ( )".

A word coined by conversion is capable of further derivation: view (to watch TV) > viewable, viewer, viewing.

Conversion may be combined with composition forming nouns out of verb-adverb combinations: a breakdown - to breakdown, to make up - a makeup, to setback - a setback.

Semantically such nouns are connected with verbal phrases.

Among semantic criteria which are used to establish the direction of derivation in conversion we distinguish the frequency criteria. A less frequent word is usually a derived word. "Thus" to author "is derived from" author "," to waterproof "- from" waterproof ". The semantic structure of a derived word (" dog "-" to dog ") is more simple.

Occasional conversion has a certain stylistic value:

"She has out - BarbaredBarbara herself ".

"I shall diamondyou! "

"Do not now-thenme! "

Minor Ways of Word-Building

is a morphological way of word-building by subtractinga real or supposed affix from words through misinterpretation of their structure. The most frequent is the pattern Vstem+ Er. The process is viewed diachronically. On the synchronic plane we may not feel any difference between butlerand painter. But painter appeared from to paintwhile the verb to butle- "To act or serve as a butler" is derived by subtraction of -erfrom a supposedly verbal stem in the noun butler. A very productive type of back-formation in present-day English is derivation of verbs from compounds with -erand -ing as final elements.

E.g. to air-condition(from air-conditioner), to thought-read(from thought-reader), to baby-sit(from baby-sitter), to house-clean(from house-cleaner), to tape-record(from tape-recorder), to beach-comb(from beach-comber). Structural changes in back-formation are preceded by semantic changes (demotivation). The latter influences the morphological structure.

Butlerappeared from OFr boutiller"Bottle bearer" - the man-servant in charge of wine. Now it means "the chief servant of a rich household who is in charge of other servants, he receives guests and directs the serving of meals."

Shortening (Clipping or Curtailment)

is the reduction of a word to one of its parts, building new words with the help of subtraction of a part of the original word. It exists in English from the XV-th century and has gained a special productivity. A lot of neologisms are formed in this way: detox (detoxification)- , o, lib (liberation), scrip (prescription). A shortened word is different from its prototype in meaning, style and usage. We classify shortenings according to the position of the clipped part:

apocope - the final part of the word is clipped:

gym - gymnasium, photo - photograph, lab - laboratory, prep -preparation, exam - examination (this type is numerous).

apheresis - the initial part of the word is clipped:

cute - acute, story - history, sport - disport, chute - parachute(This type is less numerous).

syncope - the middle part of the word is clipped: maths - mathematics, specs - spectacles, fancy - fantasy, ma'am - madam.

a combination of initial & final clipping: fridge - refrigerator,tec - detective, flu - influenza.

Clipped forms exist in the language alongside with prototypes. Shortening produces words in the same part of speech. the majority of clipped words are nouns *. Sometimes it is very difficult to establish a connection between the two words: chap + chapman, fan - fanatic.It is typical of curtailed words to render only one of the secondary meanings of a polysemantic word:

to double(, 2 , , - );

to dub- .

What are the reasons for the considerable role of shortening in Modern English word-building? Linguistic causes - analogical extension, modification of form on the basis of analogy - English monosyllabism. Extralinguistic causes - rapid tempo of modern life.

Specific Features of English Compounds -- | -- Graphical Abbreviations. Acronyms
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