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Sources of homonyms

Дивіться також:
  1. Население земного шара (по World Resources, 1990-1991, данные на 1990 г.)

Classification of homonyms

Homonyms

Result of semantic change

Can be seen in the
Change of the denotative component Change of the connotative component
Restriction Extention Deterioration Amelioration
or narrowing ['nærəu] сужение or brodaning расширение or degradation [ˌdegrə'deɪʃ (ə)n] ухудшение or elevation [ˌelɪ'veɪʃ (ə)n] повышение
or specialization [ˌspeʃ (ə)laɪ'zeɪʃ (ə)n] специализация or generalization [ˌʤen(ə)r(ə)laɪ'zeɪʃ (ə)n] обобщение or degeneration [dɪˌʤenə'reɪʃ (ə)n] урадок
of meaning

Restriction ([rɪ'strɪkʃ (ə)n] ограничение) of meaning

For example deer - any animal → deer - a certain kind of beast

meat - any food → meat - a certain kind of food

Extention ([ɪk'sten(t)ʃ (ə)n] растягивание) of meaning

For example to arrive - to come to shore → to come

girl - a small children of either sex → a small children of female sex → a young unmarried woman → any young woman → any woman

Deterioration ([dɪˌtɪərɪə'reɪʃ (ə)n] ухудшение) of meaning(when the word gets derogatory (унизительный) emotive change (эмоциональный оттенок)

For example villain (['vɪlən] крепостной) - a feudal (['fjuːd(ə)l] феодальный) sert, from servant → vile [vaɪl] person (подлый, низкий)

Amelioration ([əˌmiːlɪ (ə)'reɪʃ (ə)n] улучшение) of meaning (the improvement of the connotative component)

For example minister - a servant → a head of government department

Билет18 Homonyms ['hɔmənɪm] омонимы, euphemisms ['juːfəmɪz(ə)m] эфимизмы.

Homonyms are two or more words identical ([aɪ'dentɪk(ə)l] одинаковый) in sound form, spelling but different in meaning.

Modern English is reach in homonyms because of the monosyllable (['mɔnəˌsɪləbl] односложное слово) structure of the commonly (как правило) used English words.

1) Homonyms proper. These are words identical in their sound form and spelling but different in meaning

For example ball (мяч) - ball (бал)

2) Homophones (['hɔməfəun] омофоны). These are words that are identical in sound form but different in spelling and meaning.

For example peace (мир) - piece (кусочек)

night (ночь) - knight (рыцарь)

3) Homograph (['hɔməgrɑːf] омографы)s. These are words identical in spelling but different in sound form and meaning.

For example bow [bau] (поклон) - bow [bəu] (лук)

lead [liːd] (вести) - lead [led] (свинец)

Homonyms are mostly accidental [ˌæksɪ'dent(ə)l] (главным образом случайны). They appear mainly due to phonetic changes which the words had during their development. At the languages expressive means (средство выразительности) homonyms are of no interest (интересен).

In the process of communication homonyms lead to misunderstanding, but they are the most important source of popular human.

1) Phonetic changes

For example night - knight (K - was pronounced in old English)

2) Borrowings

For example bank (Italian банк) - bank (native берег реки)

3) Word building

For example conversion: pale (бледный) - to pale (бледнеть)

shortening: fan [fæn] - 1) вентилятор 2) fan(atic) → fan (фанат)

4) Split [splɪt] polysemy (расщепленное многозначие). Two or more homonyms can originate ([ə'rɪʤ (ə)neɪt] происходить) from different meaning of the same word, when the semantic structure of the word brakes into several parts.

For example spring (весна) - spring (родник, источник) - spring (прыжок)

All three nouns originated from the verb to spring to jump. The meanings of the first and second homonyms are based on metaphor ['metəfə].

Euphemisms ['juːfəmɪz(ə)m]

They are the words used instead ([ɪn'sted] взамен) of rough, impolite or too direct words. This device [dɪ'vaɪs] способ) is dictated ([dɪk'teɪt] навязан) by social conventions ([kən'ven(t)ʃ (ə)n] соглашение).

1) Social taboos [tə'buː]

For example 1) lavatory ['lævət(ə)rɪ] - washroom, restroom, (WC - water closet)

2) pregnancy - in an interesting condition, in a delicate ['delɪkət]

condition, she is expecting, with baby coming

3) drunkenness (пьянство)

formal: intoxicated, under the influence

call: fresh, full

2) Superstitious [ˌs(j)uːpə'stɪʃəs] (суеверия)

For example 1) devil - the prince of darkness, the black one

2) God - Good Lord, Goodness

3) to die - to pass away, to close eyes, to go west (сленг),

to kick off (сленг), to join the majority [mə'ʤɔrətɪ]

Most Euphemisms have stylistic connotation (подтекст) in their semantic structure.

Билет19 Semantic [sɪ'mæntɪk] classification of words (synonyms ['sɪnənɪm], antonyms['æntənɪm]).

Nature of semantic change «-- попередня | наступна --» Semantic classification of word
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