The grammatical meaning
a) It is tense meaning of verbs For example asked, worked
b) It is the case (падеж) meaning of nouns For example girl's, boy's
c) It is the meaning of plurality [pluə'rælətɪ] For example tables, places
2) The part speech. It can be seen in classification of lexical units:
a) Major ['meɪʤə] (nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs)
b) Miner ['maɪnə] word classes (articles, preposition, conjunction)
3) The lexical meaning. It is the component of meaning which can be seen in all forms of the word.
For example go - goes - went
Different grammatical meaning of tense, person and number, but one lexical meaning: the process of movement.
Lexical meaning includes denotative [dɪ'nəutətɪv](именной) and connotative (конотативный) components.
The denotative component or denotation ([ˌdiːnəu'teɪʃ (ə)n]) is the leading (главный) semantic component. "To denote" means to serve as a name for a concept
For example father, love, group.
The denotative component makes communication possible. It is a combination (сочетание) of several more components. They are called "semes" (сема - минимальное значение)
The connotative componentor connotation is the additional (добавочный) component. It reflects (отражает) the attitude (позицию) of the speaker. It may express:
1) Emotion For example father - daddy
2) Evaluation ([ɪˌvælju'eɪʃ (ə)n] оценку) (It can be negative or positive) For example group - clique
3) Intensity ([ɪn'ten(t)sətɪ] интенсивностьт)For example to love - to adore
4) Duration ([djuə'reɪʃ (ə)n] длительность) For example to look - to glance
Thus, the semantic structure of the word is not just a system of meanings because each meaning has its own inner (['ɪnə] внутреннюю) structure. Therefore the semantic structure of word should be studied at both levels:
1) of different meaning
2) of semantic components within (внутри) each separate
Билет15 Polysemy [pə'lɪsɪmɪ] многозначность.
A word may have only one or several meanings. Monosemantic words (that is having one meaning) are few in number (немногочисленны) and they are mainly (главным образом) scientific ([ˌsaɪən'tɪfɪk] научные) terms. Most of English words are polysemantic (that is having several meaning).
Polysemy is the ability of words to have more than one meaning.
The process of polysemy includes both the appearance (появление) of new meaning and the loss (потеря) of old ones.
Polysemy is highly development in English, because there are a lot of monosyllabic ([ˌmɔnəsɪ'læbɪk] односложных) and root words. The semantic structure of a polysemantic word is a system of meanings which are enter connective. Meaning may be:
1) Main and secondary
2) Direct and figurative
Direct meaning names the object and figurative (['fɪgərətɪv] образное) names and characterizes the object in context.
For example a fox direct: animal, figurative: cunning (['kʌnɪŋ] хитрость, коварство)
Polysemy is a great advantage ([əd'vɑːntɪʤ] польза) in a language. It gives expressiveness ([ɪk'spresɪvnəs] выразительность)to the language and enriches ([ɪn'rɪʧ] оборощает) its vocabulary, but sometimes there is a chance ([ʧɑːn(t)s] случайное) to misunderstanding of polysemantic words. In this case context may help. It is important to differentiate ([ˌdɪf(ə)'ren(t)ʃɪeɪt] различать) the meaning from the usage. Meanings are fixed in vocabulary and in the dictionaries and common (общее) to all people. The usage (that is context) is only a possible application ([ˌæplɪ'keɪʃ (ə)n] использование) at one of the meanings of a polysemantic word.
Билет16 Causes ([kɔːz] причины) of semantic change. Development and change of meaning.