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  1. Відсічний контур (Clipping Path)

Тем6 Minor word building processes in modern English

Білет12 Back formation, shortening.

Back-formation. There are words that appeared ([?p??] з'явилися) due to (через) the fact that part of the word was mistaken (помилково був прийнятий) for an affix. For example a verb is made from a noun by subtraction ([s?btr?k??n] відніманням). The process of back-formation can easily be paralleled [p?r?lel] in other languages (садити - сад, бачити - вид)

For example babysitter (noun) - to babysit (verb)

sculpture (noun) - to sculpt (verb)

beggar (noun) - to beg (verb)

Shorting.It's the formation of the word by cutting (відрізання) off a part of the word. Shortenings are made in 2 different ways:

1) By clipping ([ 'kl?p??] відрізання) part of the words

2) By making a new word from the initial (початкових) letters (букв) of a word group (abbreviations)

a) Initial shortening (Початкова скорочення > відсікається початок). The initial part of the word is clipped.

For example (tele) phone > phone, (cara) van > van

b) Medial [ 'mi?d??l] shortenings (Скорочується середина слова). The middle part of the word is clipped.

For example fan (ta) sy > fancy, ma (da) m > mam

c) Final shortening (Відсікають кінець слова). The last part of the word is clipped.

For example doc (tor) > doc, prep (aration) > prep

d) Both initial and final shortening (Відсікають і початок і кінець слова). The beginning and the end of the word are clipped.

For example (in) flue (nce) > flue, (re) frige (rator) > fridge

2) Abbreviation [??bri?v?'e?? (?) n]

a) Acronyms [ '?kr? (u) n?m]. They are pronounced (вимовляються) as independent words. (Читається словом)

For example UNO (юно) - United Nations Organization

NATO (НАТО) -North Atlantic Treaty ([ 'tri?t?] договір) Organization

b) Initial abbreviation with alphabetical reading. (Читається по буквах)

For example BBC, MP - Member of Parliament, PM - prime minister

c) Word combination with one element initially abbreviated.

For example V-day - Victory day

A-bomb - atomic bomb

d) Latin [ 'l?t?n] abbreviation

For example etc. - і так далі

i.e. - That is (тобто)

e.g. - Foe example

Білет13 Blending [ 'blend??], sound imitation, sound interchange, stress interchange, reduplication [r??dju?pl?'ke?? (?) n].

Blending [ 'blend??] (словосліяніе).A special type of word formation with the help of merging ([m?: d?] злиття) parts of different words. The words are called blends ([blend] змішані).

For example slimnastic = slim + gymnastic [??m'n?st?k]

brunch = breakfast + lunch

edutainment = education + entertainment

Sound imitation.It's the process of making new words by imitating different kinds of sounds. That are produced by animals, birds, insects [ '?nsekt], people and objects.

For example Moo, splash.

Sound interchange.It is the formation of a word by changing some sounds. It is nonproductive in modern English. There are may be:

a) Vowel-interchange ([ 'Vau?l] голосний звук) For example food - feed

Vowel interchange may be combined with abbreviation

For example strong - strength

b) Consonant interchange ([ 'K?n (t) s (?) n?nt] приголосний звук) For example advice - to advise

3) Consonant and vowel interchange For example a life - to live

Stress interchange. It is the formation of the word by means (за коштами) of the shift (переміщених) of the stress For example import - import, export (noun) - export (verb)

Reduplication [r??dju?pl?'ke?? (?) n] подвоєння. New words are made by doubling ([ 'd?bl??] подвоєнням) a stem

a) Without any phonetic changes For example Bue-bye

b) With a variation of the root vowel or consonant For example ping-pong

Білет14 The semantic structure of the English word.

The brunch of linguistics which studies lexical meaning of the word is called Semasiology ([s??me?s?'?l???] розділ мови, що вивчає значення слів) (by Soviet [ 's?uv??t] or Russian scholars) or Semantics (By British and American scholars)

Word meaning is the most difficult problem in modern linguistics. Meaning is a component ([k?m'p?un?nt] складова частина) of the word through which a concept (concept поняття, ідея) is realized. Word meaning is made up of different components. They are called "Types of meaning".

Тема5 Word-formation means or word-building processes in modern English «-- попередня | наступна --» The grammatical meaning
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