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Тема5 Word-formation means or word-building processes in modern English

Дивіться також:
  1. BRITISH AND AMERICAN ENGLISH
  2. ENGLISH VOCABULARY
  3. External means of enriching vocabulary (Old English borrowings)
  4. III. Phraseological units connected with the names and nicknames of English kings, queens, scholars, eminent writers, public leaders, etc.
  5. Phraseology. Lexicography. American English.
  6. Regional Varieties of the English Vocabulary
  7. Scandinavian-English doublets
  8. Specific Features of English Compounds
  9. Structural types of English words. Word-formation
  10. Stylistic differentiation of English words.
  11. The Etymology of English words.
  12. The main periods in the history of English

There is a special branch of lexicology that studies the patterns ([ 'p?t (?) n] моделі) on which a language forms new lexical units - word-formation.

There are different word-formation means in modern English. They are:

1) MAGOR [ 'me???] головні

· Affixation (додається суфікс або префікс)

· Composition (словоскладання sun + light = sunlight)

· Conversion (конверсія - перехід з однієї частини мови в іншу, без додавання суфікса або закінчення work (noun) > to work (verb)

2) MINER [ 'ma?n?] другорядні

· Shortening (скорочення)

· Sound imitation (звуконаслідування)

· Sound interchange (заміна, чергування звуку)

· Stress interchange (заміна ударного звуку)

· Blending ([ 'blend??]) (злиття - одне слово проникає в інше

smoke [sm?uk] курити + fog [f??] туман = smog [sm??] густий туман з димом і кіптявою; зміг)

· Backformation (babysitter (noun) > to babysit (verb))

Білет8 Affixation (general, notion) suffixation, hybrids ([ 'ha?br?d] гібрид, помісь).

Affixationis one of the most productive ([pr?'d?kt?v] ефективних) ways of word building. It consists in adding an affix to the steam of the definite part of speech.

Affixes are divided into:

· suffixes

· prefixes

Affixes can be classified into:

· productive

· nonproductive

Productive affixes are those [??uz] which take part in forming new words in this period [ 'p??r??d] of language development. The best way to identify the productive affix is to look for them among ([?'m??] серед) neologisms ([n?'?l???z (?) m] нове слово). But one should not confuse ([k?n'fju?z] плутати) the productivity of affixes with the frequency ([ 'fri?kw?n (t) s?] частотними). There are a lot of high frequency affixes which were productive long ago but are not longer used in word formation (For example: micro, lete -productive).

Suffixation.The main function of suffixes in Modern English is to form one part of speech from another.

The secondary function is to change the lexical meaning of the same part of speech.

There are different classifications of suffixes:

1) Part of speech classification

· Noun-forming suffixes (-er, - dom, -ness; For example kingdom, worker, kindness)

· Adjective-forming (-less (відсутність), -able (наявність); For example; helpless, useless,, Reasonable)

· Verb-forming suffixes (-ize, -ify; For example computerize (Впроваджувати), dramatize (Інсценувати), simplify (Спрощувати))

· Adverb-forming suffixes (-ly; For example simply (Легко), properly (Правильно))

· Numeral-forming [ 'nju?m (?) r (?) l] suffixes (-teen, -ty; For example fifteen, fifty)

2) Semantic [s?'m?nt?k] classification (suffixes change the lexical meaning of the stem)

· The agent ([ 'e?? (?) nt] представник) of the action (професії) (- er, -or, -ist, -ent; For example lawyer, actor, stylist)

· Nationality ([?n?? (?) 'n?l?t?] національність) (-ian, -ese, ish; For example Italian, Chinese, Spanish)

· Collectivity ([?k?lek't?v?t?] спільність) (-dom)

· Quality ([ 'kw?l?t?] властивість, характерна риса) (-ity; For example ability)

3) Etymological [?et?m?'l???k (?) l] classification

· Native (-er, -ful, -ness, -less)

· Borrowed (-ment, -ize)

4) Productivity

· productive

· nonproductive

Hybridsare words made up of elements which came from two or more different languages. There are two basic types of forming hybrid words:

1) a foreign base is combined with a native affix (colorless, uncertain)

2) a native base is combined with a foreign affix (ex-wife)

Білет9 Prefixation, semi-affixes, productive, non-productive.

Prefixationis the formation (освіта) of words by adding a prefix to the stem. The main function of prefixes is to change the lexical meaning of the same part of speech.

There are different classifications of prefixes:

1) Semantic classification

· Prefixes of negative [ 'neg?t?v] meaning (un-, ir-, non-, im- For example unknown, unfair)

· Prefixes denoting repetition ([?rep?'t?? (?) n] повторення) or reversal ([r?'v??s (?) l] повна зміна) action (re-, dis-, de- For example rewrite)

· Prefixes denoting time, place (ex-, pre- For example ex-student, pre-election)

2) Etymological classification

· Native (under-, over-, un-)

· Borrowed (de-, ex- For example decolonized)

3) According to productivity:

· productive

· nonproductive

Semi-affixes.There are such cases (випадки) when we can not understand if we have a suffix or a root (коренева) morpheme in the structure of the word. In such cases we call this elements semi-affixes. Such affixes of the English vocabulary are used as independent elements and as second elements.

For example land - Scotland

man - sportsman

Now days the following semi-affixes are popular (europ-, micro- and other)

Affixes can be classified into:

· productive

· nonproductive

Productive affixes are those which take part in forming new words in this period of language development. The best way to identify the productive affix is to look for them among neologisms. But one should not confuse the productivity of affixes with the frequency. There are a lot of high frequency affixes which were productive long ago but are not longer used in word formation (For example: micro, lete -productive).

Білет10 Conversion [k?n'v??? (?) n] (превращеніеб зміна, перехід).

Conversionconsists in making a new word from same existing word by changing the category of the part of speech. The morphemic [ 'm??fi?m] shape of the original word remains ([r?'me?nz] залишається) unchanged.

The new word has a meaning which differs from that of the original one through ([?ru?] через) it can be associated ([?'s?us?e?t?d] пов'язана) with it.

The new word has a new paradigm peculiar to its new category as a part of speech.

For example

nurse (noun) nurse (verb)

-s, pl -ed (past simple, past participle)

-'s, sg -ing

-s ', pl

Conversion is very productive in modern English. It is the English way to word building due to:

1) The analytical [??n (?) 'l?t?k ((?) l)] structure of modern English

2) The simplicity ([s?m'pl?s?t?] простота) of paradigms English part of speech

3) A great number of one syllable ([ 's?l?bl] склад) words, which are more mobile

(Строгий порядок слів у реченні, практично немає ні відмінків, ні закінчень).

The activity of conversion in different parts of speech various greatly (дуже по-різному). Nouns and verbs especially effected (результат) by conversion. Verbs make from nouns are the most numerous.

· Noun > verb (hand > to hand, face > to face, e-mail > to e-mail)

· Verb > noun (to find > a find)

· Adjective > noun (cold > a cold)

· Adjective > verb (pale > to pale, yellow > to yellow)

Білет11 Composition ([?k?mp?'z?? (?) n] складання, поєднання).

It is the type of word building in which new words are produced (виробляються) by combining (об'єднання, складання) two or more stems. Such words are called compounds ([ 'k?mpaund] складні слова).

There are three structural [ 'str?k? (?) r (?) l] types of compounds:

1) Neutral [ 'nju?tr (?) l] compounds. The words which are formed without any linking elements by putting (складання) two stems together.

· simple neutral. These words consists of simple affix less (без суфіксів і приставок) stems (дві основи без з'єднувального елемента)

For example Bed + room, sun + flower

· neutral derived ([d?ra?v] похідний, вторинний). They have affixes in their structure

For example kind-hearted, Chain-smoker

· shortened [ '???t (?) n] neutral compounds (or contracted). They have a shortened stem in their structure

For example TV-set, T-shirt

2) Morphological compounds. They are formed with the help of the linking elements: o, i, e, s, n

For example sport-s-man, now-a-days, hand-i-work, speed-o-meter,

3) Syntactic [s?n't?kt?k ((?) l)] (Syntactical) compounds. They are formed from segments of speech including preposition, conjunctions, articles, adverbs.

For example Jack-of-all-trades - майстер на всі руки

Merry-go-round - карусель

mother-in-law - теща

forget-me-not - незабутні

Semantically compounds may be:

1) Non-idiomatic [??d??'m?t?k] (Completely motivated). The meaning is divided from the meanings of the immediate constituents. The meaning of the words understood from the meaning of its components.

For example Sun + light, dining + room

2) Idiomatic compounds. The meaning can not be divided from the meaning of the constituents. The meaning of the word can not be understood from the meaning of its components.

· partially motivated. The meaning of the constituents (components) are weakened ([wi: k?n] ослаблене) but we can guess (вгадати) the meaning

For example me-generation - покоління, яке стурбоване власними

проблемами

Lazy-bones - ледар

· non-motivated. The meaning of the constituents (components) are lost (втрачено).

For example a blue + bottle - волошка

a lady + bird - сонечко

a lady + killer - серцеїд

a tall + boy - високий табурет, келих на високій ніжці

a Love + lace - ловелас

Etymological doublets «-- попередня | наступна --» Clipping
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