Тема3 Assimilation of borrowings
They are two or more words which came from the same etymological source but different in phonetic form and meaning.
Билет5 Assimilation ([əˌsɪmɪˈleɪʃən] ассимиляция) of borrowing
Assimilation is the process of changing the borrow words; the process of assimilation includes changes in sounds farm, morphological structure, grammar characteristic, meaning and usage.
The term assimilation of borrowing means partial ([ˈpɑ:ʃəl] частичное) or total ([ˈtəutl] полное) conformation ([ˌkɔnfɔ:ˈmeɪʃən] соответствие) to the phonetic ([fəuˈnetɪk]), graphical (['græfɪk(ə)l]) and morphological ([ˌmɔ:fəˈlɔdʒɪkəl]) standards of the English language and it's semantic ([sɪˈmæntɪk]) system.
According to the degree (степени) of assimilation all borrowed words can be divided into 3 groups:
1) Completely assimilated borrowed words. They are words, which have undergone ([ˌʌndəˈɡəu] перенесли) all types of assimilation. Such words are often used and are stylistically ([staɪ'lɪstɪk(ə)lɪ]) neutral ([ˈnju:trəl] нейтральные). They take acting part in word-formation. Completely assimilated words are not felt as foreign words in the language.
For example: sport (франц), animal (латин) and face
2) Partially assimilated borrowed words. They are words, which didn't undergone one of the type of assimilation. They may be divided into 4 groups:
a) Borrowings not assimilated graphically (['græfɪk(ə)lɪ])
For example: ballet (балет), bouquet (букет)
b) Borrowings not assimilated phonetically ([fə'netɪk(ə)lɪ]). These words have peculiarities ([pɪˌkju:lɪˈærɪtɪ] особенности) in stress, combination ([ˌkɔmbɪˈneɪʃən]) of sounds, which are not standard for English.
For example: police, machine and regime
c) Borrowings not assimilated grammatically. Nouns borrowed from Latin ([ˈlætɪn]) or Greek language have the original plural ([ˈpluərəl]) form.
For example: phenomenon (single form) - phenomena (plural form)
crises (single form) - crises (plural form)
datum (single form) - date (plural form)
d) Borrowings not assimilated semantically (По значению, слова реалии не являющиеся частью культуры (валенки, матрешка)). They denote objects or nations characteristic of the country from which they came.
For example: shah (шах), sherbet (шербет), rickshaw (рикша)
3) Unassimilated borrowed words or barbarisms ([ˈbɑ:bərɪzm]). This groups includes words from other languages used by English people in conversation or in writing but not assimilated in any way and for which there are corresponding ([ˌkɔrɪsˈpɔndɪŋ] соответствие) in English equivalents.
For example: ciao, addio, tete-a-tete, dolce vita.
They are two or more words which came from the same etymological source but different in phonetic shape and meaning.
Тема 4 The morphological ([ˌmɔːfə'lɔʤɪk((ə)l)]) structure of the English words
Билет6 Morpheme. Types of morpheme.
MORPHEME (['mɔːfiːm])= SOUND FORM+MEANING
The word is the smallest unit the language. It's consist of morphemes. The term "Morpheme" came from Greek, "morphe" which means form and the Greek suffix "eme", which means the smallest unit. Morphemes can't be divided into smaller unit without losing its meaning. They are parts of words and can't function in speech independently ([ˌɪndɪ'pendəntlɪ]). The morpheme is the minimal (['mɪnɪm(ə)l]) meaningful ([ˈmi:nɪŋful] существенная) language unit.
Structurally morpheme may be divided into:
Free (roots [[ru:t]] корневая). A form is called "free" when it can be used alone.
Bound ([baund] связанная). A form is called "bound" when it is never used alone.
For example: blackberry - ежевика
cranberry - клюква
perceive - воспринимать (от deceive)
From the semantic point of view and the role (rəul]) they play in the constructing ([kən'strʌkt] построении) of words the morphemes may be divided into: root and affixational.
The root morphemes carry ([ˈkærɪ] несет) lexical meaning of the word and make its semantic centre. The roots of a language make up its most numerous of morphemes.
According to their position in the word affixational morphemes may be divided into: derivational (prefixes, suffixes) and inflections.
Inflectionsare functional morpheme they carry only grammatical meaning.
The affixation morphemes form the new word from the word already existing in the language.
Prefix comes before the root morpheme. Suffix comes after the root morpheme.
Билет7 The morphological ([ˌmɔːfə'lɔʤɪk((ə)l)]) structure of the word, the analysis ([ə'næləsɪs]) into immediate ([ɪ'miːdɪət] непосредственные) constituents ([kən'stɪtjuənt]элементы) (IC)
When the structure of the word is analyzed we distinguish ([dɪsˈtɪŋɡwɪʃt] выделяем) the stem of the word. It is part of a word to which affixes are added. The stem is a part of a word that remains ([rɪ'meɪnz] остается) unchanged ([ʌn'ʧeɪnʤd] неизменной) throughout the paradigm (['pærədaɪm]) of the word.
Structurally (['strʌkʧ (ə)r(ə)lɪ] конструктивно) stems may be divided into:
1) Simple (coincide ([ˌkəuɪn'saɪd] совпадать) with the word form)
For example: work, teach
2) Derived ([dɪˈraɪv] производный)
For example: friendliness
3) Compound ([kəm'paund] составные) (two or more elements)
For example: longhaired
According to number of morphemes words are divided into monomorphicand polymorphic ([ˌpɔlɪ'mɔːfɪk]).
Monomorphicwords consist of only one morpheme.
For example: world, dog, house, and table.
Polymorphicwords consist of several morphemes.
The operation ([ˌɔp(ə)'reɪʃ (ə)n] процесс) of breaking polymorphic word into morphemes is the Analysis into immediate constituents (IC).
The analysis has several stages. At each stage the word is divided into two IC and each constituent should be a member of a pair or a group of words. The analysis finishes when we come to the constituents further (['fɜːðə] дальнейший) indivisible ([ˌɪndɪ'vɪzəbl] неделимый) to ultimate (['ʌltɪmət] окончательный) constituents (UC) or morpheme.
For example: unfriendliness=un+friendliness=friendly+ness=friend+ly 3C